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Social Anxiety Disorder
Do you or someone you know have a fear or anxiety of common social situations? The National Institute of Mental Health says that nearly 15% of Americans suffer from this condition. It’s called social anxiety disorder.
Treatment for social anxiety disorder or social phobia has now progressed to the personalized medicine arena—brain imaging can provide neuromarkers to predict whether traditional options such as cognitive behavioral therapy will work for a particular patient.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD)— the fear of being judged by others and humiliated— is the third most prevalent psychiatric disorder in Americans, after depression and alcohol dependence, according to the National Comorbidity Survey, a U.S. poll on mental health.
This fear can be so strong that it interferes with daily life activities like going to work or school. If left untreated, some sufferers use alcohol, food, or drugs to reduce the fear at social events, which often leads to other disorders such as alcoholism, eating disorders, and depression. The NIMH claims that 6.8% of U.S. adults and 5.5% of 13- to 15-year-olds, the age of onset for this chronic disorder, are annually afflicted.
Although psychotherapy and drugs, such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines, exist as treatments for SAD, current behavioral measures poorly predict which would work better for individual patients.
“Half of social anxiety disorder patients have satisfactory response to treatment. There is little evidence about which patient would benefit from a particular form of treatment,” said John D. Gabrieli, Ph.D., lead author of the study. “Currently, there is no rational basis for prescribing one treatment over the other. Which treatment a patient gets depends on whom they see.”
SAD patients responded more to the images of faces and not scenes, which is characteristic for the social basis of this disorder. Patients whose brains reacted strongly to the facial images before treatment benefitted more from the therapy than those who reacted to these the least (see second slide). Specifically, changes in two occipitotemporal brain regions—areas involved in early processing of visual cues such as faces—correlated with positive cognitive behavioral therapy outcome.
Doehrmann O, Ghosh SS, Polli FE, Reynolds GO, Horn F, Keshavan A, Triantafyllou C, Saygin ZM, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Hofmann SG, Pollack M, Gabrieli JD. Predicting Treatment Response in Social Anxiety Disorder from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. JAMA Psychiatry. January 2013. 70(1):87–97.